Congressional Testimony and Views Letters

 

Views Letters

Views letters are statements of the Agency's, Department's, and Administration's position, thoughts, and comments, on specific issues or legislation being considered by Congress.

National Sea Grant College Program Act Reauthorization

HR 3093, the Commerce, Justice, Science and Related Agencies FY '08 Appropriations Act

HR 1205, the Coral Reef Conservation Amendment Act of 2007

HR 3093, the Commerce, Justice, Science and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 2007

S 950, the Coastal and Ocean Observing System Act of 2007

S 1581, the Federal Ocean Acidification Research and Monitoring Act of 2007

S 1142, the Coastal and Estuarine Land Protection Act of 2007

S 1580, the Coral Reef Conservation Amendment Act of 2007

S 2307, the Global Change Research Improvement Act of 2007 (This views letter was sent from the Executive Office of the President, Office of Science and Technology Policy, and was developed with input from NOAA.)

S 2355, the Climate Change Adaptation Act (This views letter was sent from the Executive Office of the President, Office of Science and Technology Policy, and was developed with input from NOAA.)

 

Testimony

2nd Session, 110th Congress - 2008

 

Hearing on Groundfish

October 14 - Testimony of the Acting Assistant Administrator of NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service, Jim Balsiger, before the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, Subcommittee on Oceans, Atmosphere, Fisheries, and Coast Guard (Chair Maria Cantwell, D-WA)at a field hearing in Portland, Maine, to discuss the ongoing problems in the New England groundfish fishery.

Hearing on Oil Spills

September 16 - Testimony of the Director of NOAA’s National Ocean Service Office of Response and Restoration, David Westerholm, before the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation (Chairman Elijah Cummings, D MD-7) at a hearing titled Oil Spill In New Orleans in July 2008 and Safety on the Inland River System.

Hearing on Chesapeake Bay Oyster Restoration

September 10 - Testimony of the Director of NOAA’s Chesapeake Bay Office, Peyton Robertson, before the House Committee on Natural Resources, Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife, and Oceans (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-Guam) on Chesapeake Bay Oyster Restoration.

Hearing on National Marine Sanctuary Act Reauthorization

July 24 - Testimony of the Assistant Administrator of NOAA’s National Ocean Service, Jack Dunnigan, has been invited to testify before the House Committee on Natural Resources, Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife, and Oceans (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-Guam). The hearing focused on HR 6537, the Sanctuary Enhancement Act of 2008, which will reauthorize the National Marine Sanctuaries Act. The hearing also focused on HR 6204, Representative Bart Stupak’s (D MI-1) bill to expand the boundaries of Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary.

Hearing on Harmful Algal Blooms

July 10 - Testimony of the Director of NOAA's Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research, Robert Magnien, before the House Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Energy and Environment (Chairman Nick Lampson, D TX-22) on Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs): The Challenges of the Nation's Coastlines.

Hearing on Hurricane Bill

June 26 - Testimony of the Assistant Administrator of NOAA's National Weather Service, Jack Hayes, at a joint hearing before the House Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Energy and Environment (Chairman Nick Lampson, D TX-22) and Subcommittee on Research and Science Education (Chairman Brian Baird, D WA-3) on HR 2407, the National Hurricane Research Initiative Act.

Hearing on Coasts and Estuaries

June 26 - Testimony of the Director of NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, Dave Kennedy, before the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment (Chairwoman Eddie Bernice Johnson, D TX-30) on Protecting and Restoring America's Great Waters: Coasts and Estuaries.

Hearing on Climate Change: Adaptation and Resource Management

June 24 - Testimony of the Director of NOAA's National Ocean Service Coastal Services Center, Margaret Davidson, before the House Committee on Natural Resources, Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife, and Oceans (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-Guam) on Planning for Climate Change and Its Effects on Wildlife and Oceans: State and Federal Efforts and Needs.

Hearing on Climate Change and Transportation

June 24 - Testimony of a physical scientist from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center, Dr. Tom Peterson, before the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation (Chairman Daniel Inouye, D-HI) on Climate Change Effects on the Transportation Sector.

Hearing on NPOESS

June 19 - Testimony of the Under Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, VADM Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr., USN (Ret.), before the House Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Energy and Environment (Chairman Nick Lampson, D TX-22) on the GAO report on the NPOESS Program.

Hearing on the National Marine Sanctuaries Act

June 18 - Testimony of NOAA's Assistant Administrator for the National Ocean Service, Jack Dunnigan, before the House Committee on Natural Resources, Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife, and Oceans (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-Guam) on reauthorization of the National Marine Sanctuaries Act.

Hearing on the International Whaling Commission

June 10 - Testimony of Bill Hogarth, IWC Commissioner, before the House Committee on Natural Resources, Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife, and Oceans (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-Guam) on the International Whaling Commission (IWC) in advance of the 60th meeting of the IWC to be held in Santiago, Chile from June 23-27, 2008.

Hearing on Ocean Acidification

June 5 - Testimony of a Supervisory Chemical Oceanographer at NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Richard Feely, before the House Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Energy and Environment (Chairman Nick Lampson, D TX-22) on HR 4174, the Federal Ocean Acidification Research and Monitoring Act of 2007 (FOARMA). The hearing will review what ocean acidification is, what research NOAA is doing on it, and the Administration's views on HR 4174.

Hearing on Climate Change and Marine Ecosystems

May 27 - Testimony of an Oceanographer at NOAA's Pacific Environmental Laboratory, Christopher Sabine, before the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, Subcommittee on Oceans, Atmosphere, Fisheries, and Coast Guard (Chairman Maria Cantwell, D-WA) during a field hearing in Seattle on the effects of climate change on marine and coastal ecosystems in Washington state.

May 21 - Testimony of NOAA's General Counsel, Jane Luxton, before the House Committee on Natural Resources (Chairman Nick Rahall, D WV-3) on the Endangered Species Act and the Right Whale ship strike rule.

May 21 - Testimony of the Deputy Assistant Administrator of NOAA's Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, Craig McLean, before the House Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Energy and Environment (Chairman Nick Lampson, D TX-22) on reauthorization of the Sea Grant program with an emphasis on HR 5618.

May 15 - Testimony of the Regional Administrator of NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Southwest Region, Rodney McInnis, before the House Committee on Natural Resources, Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife, and Oceans (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-Guam) on the low returns of Pacific Salmon to the California Central Valley as well as the recently remanded biological opinions regarding the operation of water projects on the Sacramento River.

May 14 - Testimony of the Director of NOAA's National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS),
Roger Pulwarty, before the House Committee on Science and Technology (Chairman Bart Gordon, D TN-6) on Water Supply Challenges for the 21st Century.

May 12 - Testimony of a Physical Research Scientist at NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Dr. Craig Stow, before the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment (Chairwoman Eddie Bernice Johnson, D TX-30) during a field hearing on Great Lakes' water quality in Port Huron, Michigan.

May 8 - Testimony of the Deputy Assistant Administrator of NOAA's Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research and Director of NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory, Dr. Sandy MacDonald, before the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation (Chairman Daniel Inouye, D-HI) on NOAA's climate modeling activities.

May 8 - Testimony of the Director of the NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office, Peyton Robertson, before the House Committee on Natural Resources, Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife, and Oceans (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-Guam) on menhaden.

May 6 - Testimony of the Under Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, VADM Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr., USN (Ret.), before the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, Subcommittee on Oceans, Atmosphere, Fisheries, and Coast Guard (Chairman Maria Cantwell, D-WA) on the FY 2009 NOAA Budget Request.

The hearing will also address two bills related to sanctuary expansion:

May 6 - Testimony of Dr. David Fahey, a research physicist from NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory, before the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Subcommittee on Aviation (Chairman Jerry Costello, D IL-12) on the affect of aviation emissions on the environment.

April 24 - Testimony of the Chief Administration Officer for NOAA, William Broglie, before the House Committee on Natural Resources, Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife, and Oceans (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-Guam). The hearing will cover several bills, including HR 5350. This bill would authorize the Secretary of Commerce to sell or exchange certain NOAA property located in Norfolk, Virginia, to the City of Norfolk.

April 16, 2008 - Testimony of the Director of International Affairs for NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service, Rebecca Lent, before the House Committee on Natural Resources, Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife, and Oceans (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-Guam) at a hearing on shark finning and illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing.

April 10, 2008 - Testimony of the Under Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, VADM Conrad Lautenbacher, USN (Ret.) before the House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies (Chairman Alan Mollohan, D WV-1), on the FY 2009 NOAA budget request.

April 3, 2008 - Testimony of Acting Assistant Administrator for NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service, James Balsiger, before the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation (Chairman Daniel Inouye, D-HI) at a hearing on Management and Enforcement of International Fisheries.

April 3, 2008 - Testimony of Assistant Administrator for NOAA's Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, Richard Spinrad, before the U.S. House Committee on Natural Resources, Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife, and Oceans (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-Guam) at hearing on the reauthorization of the National Sea Grant College Program Act
(HR 5618).

March 19, 2008 - Testimony of Pacific Services Center Director Bill Thomas before the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation (Chairman Daniel Inouye, D-HI) on Impacts of Climate Change on Hawaii and Pacific Islands, March 19, 2008

March 11, 2008 - Testimony of the National Weather Service Hydrologist-in-Charge of the Southeast River Forecast Center John Feldt before the U.S.House Transportation and Infrastructure Water Resources and Environment Subcommittee (Chairwoman Eddie Bernice Johnson, D-TX) on the drought in the southeast United States.

March 6, 2008 - Testimony of the Secretary of Commerce Carlos Guitierrez before the U.S. Senate Appropriations Commerce, Justice, Science and Related Agencies Subcommittee (Chairwoman Barbara Mikukski, D-MD) on the FY '09 departmental request.

February 28, 2008 - Testimony of National Ocean Service Assistant Administrator Jack Dunnigan (read by Ocean and Coastal Resource Management Director David Kennedy) before the U.S. House Natural Resources Fisheries, Wildlife, and Oceans Subcommittee (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-Guam), on Coastal Zone Management Act oversight.

February 26, 2008 - Testimony of the Under Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere VADM Conrad Lautenbacher, USN (Ret.) before the U.S. House Science and Technology Energy and Environment Subcommittee (Chairman Nick Lampson, D-TX), on the FY '09 NOAA budget request, and the testimony of National Weather Service Director Jack Hayes to discuss the GAO Report on Aviation Weather Services.

February 26, 2008 - Testimony of Deputy Under Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere Mary Glackin before the U.S. House Natural Resources Committee Fisheries, Wildlife, and Oceans Subcommittee (Chairwoman Madeline Bordallo, D-Guam), on the FY '09 NOAA budget request.

February 19, 2008 - Testimony of NOAA Fisheries Office of Protected Resources Director Jim Lecky before the U.S. Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Oceans, Atmosphere, Fisheries, and Coast Guard (Chairwoman Maria Cantwell, D-WA), on Right Whale Gear Rule.

January 23, 2008 - Testimony of NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory Director Dr. Stephen Brandt before the U.S. House Transportation and Infrastructure Water Resources and Environment Subcommittee (Chairwoman Eddie Bernice Johnson, D-TX) on the status of Great Lakes Water Quality.


1st Session, 110th Congress - 2007

 

Testimony of Deputy Under Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere Mary Glackin before the U.S. Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Oceans, Atmosphere, Fisheries, and Coast Guard (Chairwoman Maria Cantwell, D-WA), on Oil Spills from Non-tank Vessels: Threats, Risks, and Vulnerabilities, December 18, 2007.

Written testimony of National Marine Fisheries Service Director of Scientific Programs and Chief Science Advisor Steven A. Murkawski, Ph.D, for an oversight hearing on rebuilding overfished fisheries under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act before the U.S. House Natural Resources Committee Fisheries, Wildlife and Oceans Subcommittee, December 5, 2007.

Testimony of NOAA Office of Response and Restoration HAZMAT Emergency Response Division Chief William Conner before the U.S. House Transportation and Infrastructure Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Subcommittee (Chairman Elijah Cummings, D-MD), on San Francisco Bay oil spill, November 19, 2007.

Testimony of Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Superintendent Bill Douros before the U.S. House Natural Resources Fisheries, Wildlife and Oceans Subcommittee (Acting Chairwoman Lois Capps, D-CA), on the National Marine Sanctuaries Act Reauthorization, Santa Barbara, CA, November 3, 2007.

Testimony of the National Ocean Service Assistant Administrator Jack Dunnigan before the U.S. House Natural Resources Fisheries, Wildlife and Oceans Subcommittee (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-Guam), on the Coastal and Estuarine Land Protection Act, Hydrographic Improvement Service Act, Gulf of Farallones/Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary boundary expansion bill, October 23, 2007.

Testimony of the Assistant Administrator for Satellite and Information Services Mary Kicza before the U.S. House Science and Technology Energy and Environment Subcommittee (Chairman Nick Lampson, D-TX), on the Government Accountability Office update on GOES-R: "Progress Has Been Made, but Improvements Are Needed to Effectively Manage Risks, Week of October 22, 2007.

Testimony of the Deputy Secretary of State John Negroponte before the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee (Chairman Jospeh Biden, D-DE), on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, September 27, 2007

Testimony of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere and Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Co-Chairman Tim Keeney before the U.S. House Natural Resources Fisheries, Wildlife and Oceans Subcommittee (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-Guam), on Aquatic Nuisance Species, September 27, 2007

Testimony of NOAA Fisheries Service Northwest Pacific Region Bob Lohn before the U.S. House Natural Resources Fisheries, Wildlife and Oceans Subcommittee (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-Guam), on HR 1769 - Endangered Salmon Predation Prevention Act, August 2, 2007.

Testimony of Secretary of Commerce Carlos Gutierrez before the U.S. Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee (Chairman Daniel Inouye, D-HI), on "Oversight of the U.S. Commerce Department," August 1, 2007.

Testimony of NOAA Fisheries Assistant Administration William Hogarth before the U.S. House Natural Resources Committee (Chairman Nick Rahall, D-WV), on “Crisis of Confidence: The Political Influence of the Bush Administration on Agency Science and Decision-Making” July 31, 2007.

Testimony of Under Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere VADM Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr., USN (Ret.) (All witness statements and an archived videocast of the hearing is available on the Committee website) and testimony of Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory Director Robert Atlas before the U.S. House Science and Technology Subcommittees on Energy and Environment (Chairman Nick Lampson, D-TX) and Investigations and Oversight (Chairman Brad Miller, D-NC) on "Tracking the Storm at the National Hurricane Center," July 19, 2007.

Testimony of NOAA Fisheries Assistant Administrator William Hogarth before the U.S. Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee (Acting Chairman Mark Pryor, D-AR), on Chinese Imports, including seafood, July 18, 2007.

Testimony of Under Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere VADM Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr., USN (Ret.) before the U.S. House Natural Resources Fisheries, Wildlife and Oceans Subcommittee (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-Guam), on HR 2010, National Offshore Aquaculture Act of 2007, July 12, 2007.

Testimony of the Assistant Administrator for NOAA Satellite and Information Service Mary Ellen Kicza on United States weather and environmental satellites, focusing on their readiness for the 21st century before the U.S. Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee (Chairman Daniel Inouye, D-HI), July 11, 2007.

Testimony of the Under Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere VADM Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr., USN (Ret.) before the U.S. Senate Commerce Oceans, Atmosphere, Fisheries, and Coast Guard Subcommittee (Chairman Maria Cantwell, D-WA), on the FY '08 NOAA budget request, June 28, 2007.

Testimony of Air Force BGEN Susan Mashiko, Program Executive Officer for Environmental Satellites, and testimony by White House Office of Science and Technology Director John Marburger III before the House Science and Technology Energy and Environment Subcommittee (Chairman Nick Lampson, D-TX) hearing on an update to a Government Accountability Office (GAO) report issued last November on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), June 7, 2007

Testimony of the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research Deputy Assistant Administrator for Programs and Administration Craig McLean before the U.S. House Natural Resources Committee Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife and Oceans (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-Guam) HR 1834, the National Ocean Exploration Program Act; HR 2400, the Ocean and Coastal Mapping Integration Act; and HConRes 147, commemorating the 200 th anniversary of NOAA and its predecessor agencies, June 5, 2007.

Testimony of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere Tim Keeney before the U.S. House Natural Resources Committee (Chairman Nick Rahall, D-WV) on HR 2337, Energy Policy Reform and Revitalization Act, May 23, 2007.

Testimony of Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory Supervisory Chemical Oceanographer Richard Feely before the U.S. Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Subcommittee on Oceans, Atmosphere, Fisheries and Coast Guard (Chairman Maria Cantwell, D-WA) on the Effects of Climate Change and Ocean Acidification on Living Marine Resources, May 10, 2007.

Testimony of the Assistant Administrator for Ocean Services and Coastal Zone Management John H. Dunnigan before the U.S. House Natural Resources Fisheries, Wildlife and Oceans Subcommittee (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-GU), on HR 21 Oceans Conservation, Education, and National Strategy for the 21st Century Act (Ocean-21), April 26, 2007.

Testimony of Timothy Keeney, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, before a joint hearing of the U.S. House Natural Resources Fisheries, Wildlife and Oceans Subcommittee (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo D-GU) and the Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources (Chairman Jim Costa D-CA) on Renewable Energy Opportunities and Issues on the Outer Continental Shelf, April 24, 2007.

Testimony of NOAA Coral Reef Watch Coordinator Mark Eakin before the U.S. House Natural Resources Fisheries, Wildlife and Oceans Subcommittee (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-GU), on Wildlife and Oceans in a Changing Climate, April 17, 2007.

Testimony of NOAA Climate Scientist Roger Pulwarty before the U.S. House Science and Technology Committee (Chairman Bart Gordon, D-TN), on the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group II Report, April 17, 2007.

Testimony of Office of Program Planning and Integration Assistant Administrator Mary Glackin before the U.S. House Natural Resources Fisheries, Wildlife and Oceans Subcommittee (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordalle, D-GU) on Ocean Policy Priorities in the United States, March 29, 2007.

Testimony of the Under Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere VADM Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr., USN (Ret.) before the U.S. House Science and Technology Energy and Environment Subcommittee (Chairman Nick Lampson, D-TX), on the FY '08 NOAA budget request, March 22, 2007.

Testimony of the Under Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere VADM Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr., USN (Ret.) before the U.S. House Appropriations Commerce, Justice, Science Subcommittee (Chairman Alan Mollohan, D-WV), on the FY '08 NOAA budget request, March 21, 2007.

Testimony of the Under Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere VADM Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr., USN (Ret.) before the U.S. Senate Appropriations Commerce, Justice, Science Subcommittee (Chairman Barbara Mikulski, D-MD), on the FY '08 NOAA budget request, March 8, 2007.

Testimony of Timothy R.E. Keeney, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, before the U.S. House Committee on Natural Resources, Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife and Oceans (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-GU), on the reauthorization of the Coral Reef Conservation Act Of 2000, March 6, 2007.

Testimony of the Under Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere VADM Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr., USN (Ret.) before the U.S. House Natural Resources Fisheries, Oceans and Wildlife Subcommittee (Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo, D-GU), on the FY '08 NOAA budget request, February 27, 2007.

Testimony of the Acting Director of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Dr. Bill Brennan before the U.S. Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee (Chairman Daniel Inouye, D-HI), on Climate Change Research and Scientific Integrity, February 7, 2007.

Testimony of Research Meteorologist Dr. Thomas Knutson, Climate Dynamics and Prediction Group, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, NOAA, Princeton, NJ, before the U.S. Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee (Chairman Daniel Inouye, D-HI), on Climate Change Research and Scientific Integrity, February 7, 2007.

Testimony of the former Director of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Dr. James Mahoney before the U.S. Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee (Chairman Daniel Inouye, D-HI), on Climate Change Research and Scientific Integrity, February 7, 2007.

Testimony of Dr. Susan Solomon, Senior Scientist, Earth System Research Laboratory, Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, NOAA, and Co-chairman of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group I, charged with investigating the physical basis of climate change before the House Science and Technology Committee (Chairman Bart Gordon, D-TN), February 8, 2007. Dr. Solomon used the policymakers summary in her presention.